Clinical Conditions

The following factsheets are designed to assist in understanding certain ocular conditions. Click on the heading to download a pdf document. You will need Adobe reader. Please also see the disclaimer.


This factsheet is designed to help owners to understand what cataracts are, what causes them, and what treatment is available.

Cherry Eye

Cherry eye, or protrusion of the nictitans gland, is a relatively common condition which requires surgical correction.

Corneal Sequestrum

This is a condition of cats in which a a region of the corneal stroma becomes amber , brown or black and undergoes degneration, illiciting a foreign body reaction. The factsheet outlines possible causes and recommended treatments.

Deep Corneal Ulcers

Corneal ulcers which are deep or "melting" are very serious as they could result in rupture of the eye and the necessity of having the eye removed. Early treatment is required. This factsheet outlines the condition.


Distichia are hairs arising from a normally hairless eyelid margin. They may cause irritation resulting in ocular discharge or corneal ulcers. The factsheet describes the signs and treatment for this condition.

Ectopic Cilia

Ectopic cilia are hairs which grow inappropriately on the inner surface of the eyelids. They may rub against the eye, causing a watery discharge and / or corneal ulcers. The signs and treatment are outlined in the factsheet.


An in-rolling or inversion of the eyelids causes problems as the hairs irritate the eye. This leaftlet describes the condition and the treatment options.


(surgical removal of the eye)

Unfortunately sometimes it is required that your pet must have their eye removed. This is a factsheet which outlines the causes for enucleation, the procedure, and what the pet may look like afterwards.


Glaucoma is a painful and blinding condition which results from a raised pressure within the eye. The condition may be inherited or be the result of another eye disease. This factsheet gives information about the condition.

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca - Dry Eye

Dry Eye is a condition in which there are not enough tears on the surface of the eye. The dryness leads to inflammation of the conjunctiva (conjunctivitis) and of the cornea (keratitis). Left untreated, this condition can lead to painful corneal ulcers, opacity (cloudiness) of the eye and blindness. The condition is outlined in the factsheet.

Lens Luxation

Movement of the lens from it's secure position inside the eye leads to problems such as poor vision and often causes a sudden onset of ocular pain and secondary glaucoma. This condition requires very prompt treatment, as outlined in this factsheet.

Chronic superficial keratitis / "Pannus"

Pannus is an immune-mediated condition affecting dogs and resulting in blood vessels infiltrating the cornea with inflammation of both the cornea and conjunctiva. Left untreated, the cornea goes opaque (cloudy) and may also gain a black pigment on the surface, resulting in vision loss. The consition and it's treatment are described int he factsheet.

Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA)

These are inherited disorders which affect the retina and result in slow onset loss of vision. The condition is outlined in the factsheet.

Sudden acquired retinal degeneration (SARD)

SARD is a condition which causes very sudden blindness in dogs. There is more information contained in the factsheet.

Superficial Corneal Ulcers

This condition has several names. The most recent is spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defect (SCCED). Other names include indolent ulcers, epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, Boxer ulcers, and superficial erosions. This factsheet outlines the signs of the condition and the treatment which is required.