Clinical Conditions

The following factsheets are designed to assist in understanding certain ocular conditions. Click on the heading to download a pdf document. You will need Adobe reader. Please also see the disclaimer.


This factsheet is designed to help owners to understand what cataracts are, what causes them, and what treatment is available.

Cherry eye

Cherry eye, or protrusion of the nictitans gland, is a relatively common condition which requires surgical correction.

Corneal sequestrum

This is a condition of cats in which a a region of the corneal stroma becomes amber , brown or black and undergoes degneration, illiciting a foreign body reaction. The factsheet outlines possible causes and recommended treatments.

Deep corneal ulcers

Deep and melting corneal ulcers are very seroius conditions which need prompt attention, and require a decision as to whether medical or surgical treatment is the most appropriate.


Distichia are cilia which arise from one or more meibomian gland orifices. They are not always clinically significant. The condition is outlined in this factsheet.

Ectopic cilia

Ectopic cilia are hairs which protrude through the palpebral conjunctiva, where they can cause ocular dicomfort and corneal ulceration. The condition is outlined in the factsheet.


Entropion is an inversion or in-rolling of the eyelids. It is a common problem and requires treatment, as outlined in this factsheet.


This is a factsheet designed for owners to understand why their pet needs an enucleation and what the outcome will be. There is an article on enucleation on companion animals in the Downloads section.


Glaucoma is the result of a sustained increase in intraocular pressure and causes irreversible blindness and pain. Early treatment is crucial. The factsheet gives more information about the condition.

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca

A decreased volume of tears causes inflammation of the corneal and conjunctiva. Left untreated, this condition can cause corneal opacity, ulceration, ocular pain and blindness. The condition is reviewed in this factsheet.

Lens luxation

The lens moves from it's normal position due to the disinsertion of the lens zonules. It may move in the anterior chamber (anterior lens luxation) which is an emergency due to secondary glaucoma, or it may move posteriorly into the vitreous chamber. The condition and treatment are outlined in the factsheet.

Chronic superficial keratitis / "Pannus"

An immune-mediated condition of the cornea and conjunctiva which results in vascularisation of the cornea with later superficial corneal pigmentation. The third eyelid may also be affected. The condition and it's treatment are outlined in the factsheet.

Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA)

These are inherited disorders which cause degerative changes to the retina and result in a slow onset loss of vision. The condition is outlined in the factsheet.

Sudden acquired retinal degeneration (SARD)

SARD is a condition which causes very sudden blindness in dogs. There is more information contained in the factsheet.

Superficial corneal ulcers

This condition has several names. The most recent is spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defect (SCEED). Other names include indolent ulcers, epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, Boxer ulcers, and superficial erosions. This factsheet outlines the signs of the condition and the treatment which is required.

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